The aim of this guide is to provide you with basic and important information about nutrition which will serve you for the rest of your life.

Learn about the food groups
Understand what your body really needs
Utilize basic principles that guarantee success
Change the way you think about food altogether
Become a source of knowledge for your friends and family

This booklet provides you with an essential tool should you decide to take on one of The Foundations' workout programs. These life-changing workout systems use concepts learned in our guide to Flexible Dieting booklet and incorporate them into the training blocks to maximize your results and experience.

nutrition test

This short test will determine your knowledge of basic nutrition concepts. You mat be surprised by just how much you do or don't know. Good luck. Check the answers to these questions at the bottom of the page.



1. Missing breakfast will?

a. speed my metabolism up

b. slow my metabolism down


2. Which of the following is a wholegrain?

a. Quinoa

b. Popcorn

c. Oatmeal

d. All of the above


3. To build muscle the body uses?

a. fats

b. fibre

c. carbs

d. protein


4. Which of the following foods contains the most carbs?

a. chicken

b. beef

c. fried fish

d. no carbs in any


5. Which of the following is not an added sugar?

a. Honey

b. Fructose

c. Maple Syrup

d. High Fructose Corn Syrup


6. Fats are fats, in other word eating all types of fats is

equally as bad for you.

a. true

b. false


7. Which is the best energy source for the body?

a. caffeine

b. carbs

c. protein

d. fats


8. Margarine is a healthier option than full fat butter.

a. true

b. false

c. avoid both



9. After a hard workout I should eat a meal containing:

a. just protein

b. just carbs

c. protein and carbs

d. simple sugars


10. Eating no carbs or sugars throughout the day is the best

way to lose fat

a. true

b. false


11. The best time to take protein after workout is?

a. a couple of hours after the body has cooled down

b. immediately after the workout

c. doesn’t make a difference


12. What’s the best drink to have after a long endurance


a. water

b. isotonic drink

b. a drink containing sugar to gain energy


13. How many calories per gram do carbohydrates and Protein have?

a. 2

b. 3

c. 4

d. 5


14. Which nutrient is required for a healthy immune system?

a. vitamin d

b. vitamin c

c. protein

d. fats


15. Which of the following is the best source of omega 3 fatty acids?

a. corn oil

b. wheat products

c. sardines

d. olive oil




score system:

0-5 poor. help is needed / 6-10 not too bad but not great. a little help can take you to the next level /11-15 good all-around knowledge.



Correct Answers:

1.B 2.D 3.D 4.D 5.B 6.B 7.B 8.B 9.C 10.B 11.B 12.B 13.c 14.A 15.C

Where's the protein

1.     Vary your protein food choices

Eat a variety of foods from the Protein Foods Group each week. Experiment with main dishes made with beans or peas, nuts, soy, and seafood.


2.     Choose seafood twice a week

Eat seafood in place of meat or poultry twice a week. Select a variety of seafood—include some that are higher in oils and low in mercury, such as salmon, trout, and herring.


3.     Make meat and poultry lean or low fat

Choose lean or low-fat cuts of meat like round or sirloin and ground beef that is at least 90% lean.

Trim or drain fat from meat and remove poultry skin.


4.     Have an egg

One egg a day, on average, doesn’t increase risk for heart disease, so make eggs part of your weekly choices. Only the egg yolk contains cholesterol and saturated fat, so have as many egg whites as you want.


5.     Eat plant protein foods more often

Try beans and peas (kidney, pinto, black, or white beans; split peas; chickpeas; hummus), soy products (tofu, tempeh, veggie burgers), nuts, and seeds. They are naturally low in saturated fat and high in fiber.


6.     Nuts and seeds

Choose unsalted nuts or seeds as a snack, on salads, or in main dishes to replace meat or poultry. Nuts and seeds are a concentrated source of calories, so eat small portions to keep calories in check.


7.     Keep it tasty and healthy

Try grilling, broiling, roasting, or baking—they don’t add extra fat. Some lean meats need slow, moist cooking to be tender—try a slow cooker for them. Avoid breading meat or poultry, which adds calories.


8.     Make a healthy sandwich

Choose turkey, roast beef, canned tuna or salmon, or peanut butter for sandwiches. Many deli meats, such as regular bologna or salami, are high in fat and sodium—make them occasional treats only.


9.     Think small when it comes to meat portions

Get the flavor you crave but in a smaller portion. Make or order a smaller burger or a “petite” size steak.


10.  Check the sodium

Check the Nutrition Facts label to limit sodium. Salt is added to many canned foods—including beans and meats. Many processed meats—such as ham, sausage, and hot dogs—are high in sodium. Some fresh chicken, turkey, and pork are brined in a salt solution for flavor and tenderness.

shopping tips

1.     Make a grocery list (and stick to it).

Pre-plan what you are going to eat before you go to the shops. Visualize the isles remember what is there. This will mean you go through the supermarket swiftly and won’t get side-tracked by non-list items.


2.     Don’t go shopping hungry.

Common sense this one. If you go there hungry; you buy there hungry.

3.     Buy more greens.

On that weekly trip to the grocery store, grab some extra green vegetables for health benefits like a stronger immune system . They're super-healthy (kale and spinach are bona fide superfoods!) and easy to fit into any meal!


4.     Choose fresh or frozen over canned.

For veggies, soups, and beans, avoiding the can cuts out unnecessary sodium. For fruit, it avoids excess sugar. Plus, the fresh stuff always tastes better. And, perhaps surprisingly, canned produce can actually end up costing more (or at least the same amount) as the fresh stuff!


5.     If you can’t grow it or raise it (theoretically), don't eat it.

Monosodium glutamate doesn't grow on trees. Neither does high fructose corn syrup or Yellow No. 5. But at least one of these ingredients is found in many (if not most) of the processed foods on grocery store shelves, from chips to fruit juice. And these ingredients have been linked to everything from obesity and diabetes to brain and liver damage. If whatever's in that grocery basket couldn't theoretically come from your own backyard, swap it for something closer to the original. Choose whole potatoes over a box of mashed; pick plain ol' oats instead of pre-sweetened packets.


6.     Choose whole grains.

When grains are processed — like, say, to become white flour used in crackers, cookies, or white bread — two essential parts of the grain (the bran and germ) are removed. The problem is these parts hold the most health benefits and nutrients, including vitamin E, major B vitamins, antioxidants, fibre, protein, and healthy fats. Look for the "Whole Grain Stamp" on packaging or just opt for ingredients like whole grain, brown rice, and oats.


7.     Avoid sweetened drinks.

Added sugar is a big no-no. Not only does it pack on calories, but eating foods with added sugar has also been linked to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and weight gain. Replace sweetened beverages (even artificially sweetened diet drinks) with water, seltzer, and fresh fruit, or 100 percent fruit juices diluted with water.


8.     Eat naturally sweet food (and don't add extra sugar to it!).

Some of us have a sweet tooth, but instead of indulging in sugar-packed processed foods, choose naturally sweet ones to cut down on sugar cravings later. Start in the fruit section and choose naturally sweet vegetables like beets, corn, and sweet potatoes (just to name a few!).


9.     Buy in bulk and divide into portions.

Yes, this strategy is mostly a way to cut down on cost. But buying in bulk — anything from vegetables, to meat, to grains — can also cut down on shopping time, so there’s more time left to prepare healthy meals.


10.  Stick to the edges of the grocery store.

The outer edges are typically home to fresh produce, meats, dairy, and breads. The inner aisles usually feature highly-processed items packed with extra sugar and artificial ingredients. There are always exceptions, of course, but try sticking to the 80:20 rule (80 percent of the grocery cart from outside the aisles, 20 percent from inside the aisles) for a healthier diet.


Food Storage and Prep


11.  Make grocery day "Food Prep Extravaganza."

To cut down drastically on food prep throughout the week, do it all at once after returning home from the store. Unwrap, clean, and cut up meat to freeze or refrigerate in portions. Wash and prep all produce. Chop and freeze anything that may be used at a later date. Pre-portion snack foods (see below), and yogurt or rolled oats for easy breakfasts throughout the week! (Overnight Oats are a favorite in the Greatist office!)


12.  Prepare your own food as often as possible.

We're not talking give up eating out entirely — it’s no fun skipping those special restaurant dinners! But by preparing as many meals as possible on your own, it's much easier to know (and control) exactly what's going into your body, without any sneaky ingredients. Going to be at work during the lunch hour? Pack something to eat there. No time to eat before heading out in the AM? Bring something to eat on the way or at the office.


13.  Pre-package snacks.

When eating out of a family-sized potato chip bag, it's easy to keep reaching that hand in until all that's left are the greasy crumbs. Instead of wasting away in a bottomless pit of chips, try pre-portioning snack foods into single-serving plastic baggies or reusable containers.


14.  Grow your own herbs.

Fresh herbs (or freshly dried ones) are a great way to season food without excess salt, butter, or cheese. Growing a personal herb garden isn't only good for that belly — it's also an easy way to pretty up any space! All that’s necessary for a DIY herb garden is a few small planters and an empty windowsill (even the Greatist office has one!).


15.  Store the healthiest food in the front of the fridge.

When the fridge door opens, make sure you see the healthiest items first. If the leftover chocolate cake is shoved in the back corner, chances are the eye will gravitate towards the shiny apple right up front first. Bonus points for storing healthy options in transparent containers and unhealthy stuff in opaque ones so you see the healthy stuff before the stomach really starts grumbling.


Cooking and Mealtime


16.  Sneak veggies into everything.

We even have a few ways to fit veggies into dessert. Yep, we went there.


17.  Forget about counting calories.

Checking every nutrition label before chowing down is annoying (to say the least). Instead focus on meals that include a variety of nutrients, colors, and fresh ingredients. It's much easier to keep a healthy, balanced diet this way than by counting calories.


18.  Eat a healthy breakfast!

Starting the day off right is key to eating healthy all day long. So what makes the best breakfast? One study found consuming protein for breakfast can help prevent overeating later in the day, but another found that eating a big breakfast with dessert could help keep off excess pounds. Choose what works best for you.


19.  Opt for smaller portions.

When restaurants pile plates bigger than a human head, it's easy to overeat. Limit those portions to less gargantuan sizes to easily eat a little healthier. Not sure where to start? Try these portion-size plates, or learn how to estimate serving sizes for certain foods. And here's a great tip for eating out: To avoid eating more than planned, ask the server to wrap up half the dish beforehand and go home with a pre-made doggie bag.


20.  Replace dessert with fruit.

While some varieties can be high in sugar, fruit is a great way to satisfy that sweet tooth without breaking the sugar bank. Plus, it offers health benefits typical desserts can't, like fibre and antioxidants. And opting for fruit can help avoid that dreaded sugar crash.


21.  Pace your mealtime.

When we eat quickly, our bodies don’t always have time to realize we’re full — so it’s easy to overeat. Enjoy what's on the plate, and stop eating as soon as that stomach gives the first hint of being full. It's always possible to eat more later.


22.  Consider not buying unhealthy stuff in the first place.

'Nuff said.


I cannot take the credit for creating these snack ideas. They are a collection of ideas from various sources and some of them are great, quick and easy to prepare.


1.       Parfait: Layer vanilla yogurt and mandarin oranges or blueberries in a tall glass. Top with a sprinkle of granola.


2.       Inside-Out Sandwich: Spread mustard on a slice of deli turkey. Wrap around a sesame bread-stick.


3.       Mini Pizza: Toast an English muffin, drizzle with pizza sauce and sprinkle with low-fat mozzarella cheese.


4.       Sandwich Cut-Outs: Make a sandwich on whole grain bread. Cut out your favorite shape using a big cookie cutter. Eat the fun shape and the edges, too!


5.       Banana Split: Top a banana with low-fat vanilla and strawberry frozen yogurt. Sprinkle with your favorite whole-grain cereal.


6.       Apple Pie Oatmeal: Make one packet of microwave oatmeal with low-fat milk. Mix in 1/4 cup unsweetened applesauce. Sprinkle with apple pie spice or cinnamon.


7.       Microwave a cup of tomato or vegetable soup and enjoy with whole-grain crackers.


8.       Fill a waffle cone with cut-up fruit and top with low-fat vanilla yogurt.


9.       Peel a banana and dip it in yogurt. Roll in crushed cereal and freeze.


10.   Spread celery sticks with peanut butter or low-fat cream cheese. Top with raisins.


11.   Stuff a whole-grain pita pocket with ricotta cheese and Granny Smith apple slices. Add a dash of cinnamon.


12.   Mix together ready-to-eat cereal, dried fruit and nuts in a sandwich bag for an on-the-go snack.


13.   Smear a scoop of frozen yogurt on two graham crackers and add sliced banana to make a yummy sandwich.


14.   Toast a whole-grain waffle and top with low-fat yogurt and peaches.


15.   Mix together low-fat cream cheese, mixed dried fruit bits and shelled sunflower seeds. Spread on a toasted English muffin.


16.   Blend low-fat milk, frozen strawberries and a banana for thirty seconds for a delicious smoothie.


17.   Make a mini-sandwich with tuna or egg salad on a dinner roll.


18.   Spread peanut butter on apple slices.


body composition chart

Assessing body composition isn't easy. There are so many different methods out there to choose from and in all honesty many of them leave a lot to be desired. The best method is a combination of electrical impedance tests and old fashioned "eyeballing."

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